Economía ambiental

Long-term effects of weather during gestation on education and labor outcomes: Evidence from Peru



Extensive evidence shows that weather conditions during gestation affect birth outcomes and early childhood development in the developing world. Pairing weather data during gestation with education and labor outcomes for more than one million people, we show that in-utero weather has lasting effects through adulthood: temperature during gestation affects schooling attainment, earnings, and access to formal employment among females in Peru, but not among males. We identify maternal anemia as a key driver of these outcomes. Our findings suggest that the persistent negative effects of temperature around birth can be mitigated through improved health services for vulnerable mothers.

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